A researcher may use research funds to purchase equipment as long as the material is required to complete the project and the costs are an eligible expense under the budget approved with the main sponsor. Overall, the transfer of materials between researchers has grown increasingly difficult and it seems that the open exchange days of materials, particularly from industry researchers to university researchers in life sciences, are over. While some areas of free trade continue to thrive and some promotion agencies and foundations actively encourage open exchange of materials, these become exceptions rather than rules. Both universities and private companies have legitimate interests in assisting them in making in-kind transfers. If these interests conflict, it can be difficult to find common ground. However, the common interest of private research-based enterprises and universities is to support research progress; And if both parties monitor this overall objective, hardware transfers are generally possible. For simple transfers without intellectual property, the NIH recommends a simple matching agreement. For materials that can be patented or for which increased protection is desired, the Uniform Biological Material Transfer Agreement (UBMTA) can be used. Many U.S. educational institutions have signed the UBMTA Masteragrement.  AUTM (formerly the Association of University Technology Managers) serves as a repository for UBMTA`s original master`s contracts and keeps the list of signatories.
 UBMTA signatories must only sign a letter of execution containing the details of each transfer, since they have already agreed to all the terms of the master contract. The preamble to an MTA is like a summary of a manuscript or a prologue to a novel. The preamble lays the groundwork for the MTA and sets the conditions for subsequent legally binding conditions. The preamble mentions the parties to the agreement and sets the MTA`s entry into force. It may also contain the addresses of the parties. It may even contain recitals or clauses decrying the material, the purpose of the research and the intention of the parties.