(ii) not to apply restrictions in order to unreasonably prevent the importation of product descriptions in minimum commercial quantities, the exclusion of which would affect regular trade routes; and 6. The Parties shall cooperate to prevent trade names from being used in a manner that distorts the true origin of a good, to the detriment of the specific regional or geographical names of products in the territory of a Party protected by their legislation. Each Party shall consider in a complete and favourable manner requests or declarations made by another Party concerning the application of the obligation referred to in the preceding sentence to the names of goods notified to it by the other Party. At the same time, 15 countries focused on negotiating a simple trade deal. They agreed to remove trade restrictions affecting trade worth $10 billion, or one-fifth of the global total. A total of 23 countries signed the GATT Agreement on 30 October 1947, paving the way for its entry into force on 30 June 1948. While gatt was a set of rules agreed upon by nations, the WTO is an intergovernmental organization with its own headquarters and staff, and its scope includes both trade in goods and trade in services, as well as intellectual property rights. Although designed to serve multilateral agreements, plurilateral agreements have led to selective trade and fragmentation among members over several gatt rounds of negotiations (not limited to the Tokyo Round). WTO agreements are generally a multilateral GATT resolution mechanism. [24] Agriculture has been essentially excluded from previous agreements as it has been granted special status in the areas of import quotas and export subsidies with only slight reservations. However, at the time of the Uruguay Round, many countries considered the exception to agriculture to be so glaring that they refused to sign a new agreement without free agricultural products. These fourteen countries became known as the “Cairns Group” and consisted mainly of small and medium-sized agricultural exporters such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia and New Zealand. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a legal agreement between many countries whose primary objective was to promote international trade by removing or removing barriers to trade such as tariffs or quotas.

According to its preamble, its purpose was to “significantly reduce tariffs and other barriers to trade and eliminate preferences on a mutually beneficial basis.” Most countries have adopted the most-favoured-nation principle when setting tariffs, which have largely replaced quotas. Tariffs (which are preferable to quotas but still a barrier to trade) have again been steadily reduced in successive rounds of negotiations. One of the most important achievements of GATT has been trade without discrimination. Each signatory member of the GATT was to be assimilated to all the others. This is called the most-favoured-nation principle and it has been adopted in the WTO. In practice, it follows that once a country has negotiated a tariff reduction with other countries (usually its main trading partners), the same reduction automatically applies to all GATT signatories. There were substitution clauses that allowed countries to negotiate exemptions if their domestic producers were particularly harmed by tariff reductions. 8. . . .